When constructing definitions, SL follows the advice of David Kelley in The Art of Reasoning. Kelley states, "The function of a definition is to identify the referents of the concept, condense the knowledge we have about the referents, and relate the concept to other concepts. A definition should mention the genus to which the concept belongs and the essential attributes (the differentia) distinguishing the referents of the concept from those of other species in the same genus. In constructing a definition, we should find the genus first, then look for a differentia that isolates the right class of referents and names their essential attributes."

4-Ways of Seeing - 

5-25 Rule - 

5-Why - 

abstraction - 

adapt - makes things fit by change.

adaptability - the quality of being able to adjust to new conditions.

administration - 

affinity diagram - 

alpha - denoted by the Greek letter α (alpha), which is equal to 100 minus the confidence level; we typically see a confidence level of 95 percent, which means that, on average, if your hypothesis is false, one in twenty experiments (5 percent) will get a false positive result. The most common false positive rate is 5 percent; alpha is also known as a false positive or type I error. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 331.

alternative futures analysis - 

ambiguous - 

amoeba - 

amoeba questions - 

analogy - 

analysis - 

analysis of competing hypothesis (ACH) - 

analyze - 

antecedent - the "if" component in a hypothetical proposition. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.

argument - a unit of reasoning in which one or more propositions (the premises) purport to provide evidence for the truth of another proposition (the conclusion). Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.

assumption - 

argument deconstruction - 

Auftragstaktik - 

autonomy - independent and self-governed.

axiom - 

backwards thinking - 

baloney detection kit (BDK) - 

beta - denoted by the Greek letter β (beta), which is equal to 100 minus the power; the power of an experiment is typically selected to be an 80 to 90 percent chance of detection, with a corresponding false negative error (also known as a type  II error) of 10 to 20 percent (this rate is beta). Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 332.

beta-mode - 

biomimicry - 

bionomics - 

bridging - (designing for high road transfer): Making conceptual connections between what's learned and other applications. This is more cerebral, less experiential. Students generalize and reflect.  10 Tools for Transfer

Campbell's law -  is an adage developed by Donald T. Campbell, a psychologist and social scientist who often wrote about research methodology, which states: "The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor." Campbell, Donald T (1979). "Assessing the impact of planned social change". Evaluation and Program Planning. 2 (1): 67–90.

categorical syllogism - a deductive argument containing two categorical premises, a categorical conclusion, and three terms - major, minor, and the middle - with each term occurring in two propositions. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.

causality - 

cause - 

central tendency - where the values tend to be centered; measured by the mean, median, and mode. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 389.

cell - 

certainty - 

change - make tings within a system different.

chromosome - 

clarity - 


classify - to group things into species and genuses according to their similarities and differences. A genus is the broader concept, such as Animal, where the species is the narrower one, such as Dog and Cat. A referent is the class of things the concept stands for, such as all the individual Dogs and Cats in the world. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 42.

cobra effect - is when an attempted solution to a problem makes the problem worse as a type of unintended consequence. The cobra effect originated during the time of the British rule of colonial India. The British government was concerned about the number of venomous cobras in Delhi. The government, therefore, offered a bounty for every dead cobra. Initially, this was a successful strategy as large numbers of snakes were killed for the reward. Eventually, however, enterprising people began to breed cobras for the income. When the government became aware of this, the reward program was scrapped causing the cobra breeders to set the worthless snakes free; the wild cobra population further increased.

cognition - 

cognitive closure - 

cognitive jig -  is a device to guide your thinking.

cogent - the property of an inductive argument that is strong and whose premises are true. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.

collaboration - 

communication -

complexity - 

complex adaptive syllabus (CAS) -

complex adaptive system (CAS) -  is a system that allows organisms to adapt to environmental changes. A CAS is self-organizing with the ability to change its environment and adapt in response to changing conditions.

concept(s) - is a general way of doing something (e.g. cook an egg). Defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, in speech, or in thought. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics, psychology, and philosophy, and these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, and how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: Armstrong, S. L., Gleitman, L. R., & Gleitman, H. (1999). what some concepts might not be. In E. Margolis, & S. Lawrence, Concepts (pp. 225–261). Massachusetts: MIT press and Fodor, Jerry; Lepore, Ernest (1996). "The red herring and the pet fish: Why concepts still can't be prototypes". Cognition. 58 (2): 253–270

1) Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the mind (mental objects)
2) Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents (mental states)
3) Concepts as Fregean senses (see sense and reference), where concepts are abstract objects, as opposed to mental objects and mental states

condition - 

conditional statement - 

consciousness - 

constant bearing angle (CBA) - 

constructal law - 

context - the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.

contextualize - to consider something or to help other people consider something in its context (= the situation within which it exists or happens), which can help explain it: We need to contextualize the problem before we can understand its origin. Cambridge Dictionary.

context principle - holds that a philosopher should "never ... ask for the meaning of a word in isolation, but only in the context of a proposition" Frege, Gottlob (1884/1980). The Foundations of Arithmetic. Trans. J. L. Austin. Second Revised Edition. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.

counterfactual thinking - means thinking about the past by imagining that the past was different, counter to the facts of what actually occurred; typically used by posing "what-if" questions. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 405. 

COVID-19 - 

cultural perception framework - 

curriculum - 

cynefin framework - 

crystalized intelligence - 

data - 

debate - 

decentralization - 

decision -

decision-making - 

decision matrix - 

definition - a statement that identifies the referents of a concept by specifying the genus they belong to and the essential characteristics (differentia) that distinguish those referents from other members of the genus. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 42.

deep rabbit hole (DRH) learning theory - 

deliberation - 

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - 

desire path -  is a path created by animal or human foot traffic, typically a shortcut or the shortest route between two places.

devils advocate - 

diathetics -  

differentia - the element in a definition that specifies the attribute(s) distinguishing species from other species of the same genus. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 42.

disease - 

distinction - 

double-loop learning - 

effect - 

effector - 

emergence - 

Ender's Game - 

environment - 

epi - 

epigenetics - 

epistemology - 

essay - 

essay map (EM) - 

evolve - seeks incremental change over time.

execution - 

existence - 

experiential - 

Facebook - 

Facebook group - 

fact - 

feedback - 

feedback loop - 

feedback trail (FT) - 

feedback survey - 

first principles - a group of self-evident assumptions that make up the foundation on which your conclusions rest - the ingredients in a recipe or the mathematical axioms that underpin a formula. Arguing from first principles is a mental model for thinking and means thinking from the bottom up, using basic building blocks of what you think is true to build sound conclusions. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 23-24. 

"First principles is kind of a physics way of looking at the world... You kind of boil things down to the most fundamental truths and say, "What are we sure is true?"... and then reason up from there" - Elon Musk

flocking - 

fluidity - The quality of being graceful or flowing, like the fluidity of a dancer’s movements. Things that move with easy, smooth motions have fluidity — think of clouds moving across the sky on a windy day, or the way a modern dancer’s body moves.

fluid intelligence - 

form, fit, function - 

function - 

function analysis - is the process of understanding your system by focusing on its functions. 

function map - is the diagram you draw, which shows all the components and how they interact and all the functions, both good and bad. 

fuzzy trace theory (FTT) - 

G.Polya's four-step problem-solving process - 

general semantics - 

gene editing - 

genes - 

genome - genetic material of an organism.

genesis - 

genus - a class of things regarded as having various subcategories (its species). A genus is the broader concept, such as Animal. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 42.

giant's game - 

gist - 

Goodhart's law -  is an adage named after economist Charles Goodhart, which has been phrased by Marilyn Strathern as "When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure." One way in which this can occur is individuals trying to anticipate the effect of a policy and then taking actions that alter its outcome. Strathern, Marilyn. "Improving Ratings: Audit in the British University System". European Review. 5 (3): 305–321.

hecastics - 

Hick's Law - the principle that the more choices you present a user with, the longer it takes them to make a decision. Soegard, "Hick's Law: Making the choice easier for users."

Holcocephala - 

hot seat thinking - 

hugging - (designing for low road transfer) making the learning experience more like the ultimate applications. Students do and feel something more like the intended applications. 10 Tools for Transfer

heuristic - an aid to learning, discovery, or problem-solving by experimental and trial-and-error methods. 

horizontal transfer (near transfer) - 

hypothesis - 

hypothesis test - 

idea - an Idea is a specific way of putting a concept into practice (e.g. fry an egg or scramble an egg)

identity - 

imprinted genes - 

imprints - 

information - 

inputs - 

intelligence quotient (IQ) - 

jig - a device to hold something in place and/or guide a tool operating on it. A stencil is the perfect example of a jig as it creates an image or pattern. This is because you can use this tool to help you think about what's going on in your mind as you work through a problem.

knowledge - 

knowledge trail (KT) - 

knowledge transfer - 

knowns & unknowns - Known-Known means What you know you know; Known-Unknown means What you know you don't know; Unknown-Known means What you don't know you know; Unknown-Unknown means What you don't know you don't know. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 398.


Lean Six Sigma (LSS) - 

learning - comes from the Old English word leornung or “study, action of acquiring knowledge.” Learning also means a base sense to follow or find the track and the process of acquiring new knowledge.

learning transfer (transfer of learning) - 

logic - 

logic model - 

look - 

mean - average or expected value; a measure of central tendency.

median - middle value splitting the data into halves; a measure of central tendency.

meta - (from the Greek meta- μετά- meaning "after" or "beyond") is a prefix meaning more comprehensive or transcending. Merriam-Webster Dictionary

metacognition - thinking about thinking

metaepistemological -

meta-question - 

metalearning - is a branch of metacognition concerned with learning about one's own learning and learning processes.

metaphor - 

methodology - 

mission - 

mission command - 

mission-type orders - 

microorganisms - 

mobility - the ability to move or be moved freely and easily.

mode - most frequent result; a measure of central tendency.

mutate - 

nature - 

necessary condition - 

Need for Cognitive Closure (NFCC)

neuro - 

neurogenesis - 

novel - 

nucleotides - 

nurture - 

Objectivist (Objectivism) - 

Objectives and Key Results (OKR) - 

OODA loop - 

organism - 

Outcomes-based training and education (OBT&E) -

outputs - 

p-value - the probability of obtaining a result equal to or more extreme than what was observed, assuming the null hypothesis was true; a common measure used to declare whether a result is statistically significant; for example, a p-value of 0.01 would mean that a difference equal to or larger than the one observed would happen only 1 percent of the time if something had no effect. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 336. 

pandemic - 

pareto analysis - 

pattern - 

pattern-recognition - 

periodic table of elements - 

perspective (point of view) - 

phenomenon - 

pheromone trails - 

philosophy - 

postmortem analysis - 

power - the sample size you need in order to detect a real result with a high enough probability; called the power of the experiment. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 331-332.

premortem analysis - 

principles - 

principle generalization - are the conceptual relationships that form when two or more concepts are linked together. Erickson, H. Lynn, Transitioning to Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction.

probing horizontally (horizontal vision) - is seeing through the lens of what is happening around us and weaving together information from all directions. It is also about looking at the whole picture and not just one or two parts.

probing vertically - to dive deeper into a problem. It means to ask questions that are not always obvious and to create something new or to become aware of new information. 

problem - 

problem-sensing - 

problem-solving - 

proof - 

pscychology - 

pyramid principle - 

question - 

quorum sensing - 

recognition primed decision model (RPD or RPM) - 

referents - the class of things for which a concept stands, such as all the individual Dogs and Cats in the world. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 22.

reasoning - 

receptor - 

Red Team - 

reflective model - 

response - 

root-cause analysis - 

rules-based decision-making - 

schwerpunkt - 

see - 

SEE systems model - 

scientific method - 

self-evident - a truth that cannot be derived from any other laws.

self-organization -

simple agents - 

simple rules - 

simplification triangle - is used to help simplify problem-solving. It is used for tackling complex issues and to help the problem-solver remain objective and logical when solving problems. The triangle was created to streamline focus to point to the most effective choices. It aligns focus while eliminating information overload and can be applied in any situation. 

single-loop learning - 

situation - 


spontaneous - 

species - a class of things regarded as a subcategory of a wider class (a genus). The narrower concept, such as Dog and Cat. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 22. 

stable datum - 

stigmergy - 

stimulus - 

storyboard - 

string of pearls - 

structure of knowledge - 

superorganism - 

surface and gaps - 

swarm - comes from the Old English word swearm or “swarm, multitude.” 

swarming the canvas (SC) - 

swarm intelligence (SI) - is the collective behavior of decentralized and self-organized action of a group. It is also called the swarm effect because it is the result of a complex interaction between the individuals in the group. 

swarm learning (SL) - the goal is to teach students how to think, not what to think. The methodology is based on receiving continuous student feedback to change a class while in progress and to facilitate a faster transfer of learning.

Swarm Learning Faceboook Group - 

swarm problem solving methodology (SPSM) -

swarm questions - 

swarm transfer triangle - 

syllabus - 

synthesize - 

system - 

systems thinking - describes the act of stepping back and making sense of the whole system; when you attempt to think about the entire system at once; by thinking about the overall system, you are more likely to understand and account for subtle interactions between components that could otherwise lead to unintended consequences. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 389.

systems thinking v2.0 (DSRP) - 

tactical decision exercise (TDE) game (TDG) - 

tandem running - 

topics - are an accumulation of similar facts. Erickson, H. Lynn, Transitioning to Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction.

trail (or trace) - 

theory - 

thinking - 

Toulmin method - 

transfer - a way to learn something in one area and apply it in another.

traits - 


ubiquity - presence everywhere or in many places especially simultaneously.

unknown - 

upside down map - 

verbatim - 

virus - 


vertical transfer (far transfer) - 

Wardley maps - 

what if analysis -

white noise - background noise or things you cannot control.