When constructing definitions, SL follows the advice of David Kelley in The Art of Reasoning. Kelley states, "The function of a definition is to identify the referents of the concept, condense the knowledge we have about the referents, and relate the concept to other concepts. A definition should mention the genus to which the concept belongs and the essential attributes (the differentia) distinguishing the referents of the concept from those of other species in the same genus. In constructing a definition, we should find the genus first, then look for a differentia that isolates the right class of referents and names their essential attributes."
alpha - denoted by the Greek letter α (alpha), which is equal to 100 minus the confidence level; we typically see a confidence level of 95 percent, which means that, on average, if your hypothesis is false, one in twenty experiments (5 percent) will get a false positive result. The most common false positive rate is 5 percent; alpha is also known as a false positive or type I error. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 331.
antecedent - the "if" component in a hypothetical proposition. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.
argument - a unit of reasoning in which one or more propositions (the premises) purport to provide evidence for the truth of another proposition (the conclusion). Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.
beta - denoted by the Greek letter β (beta), which is equal to 100 minus the power; the power of an experiment is typically selected to be an 80 to 90 percent chance of detection, with a corresponding false negative error (also known as a type II error) of 10 to 20 percent (this rate is beta). Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 332.
bridging - (designing for high road transfer): Making conceptual connections between what's learned and other applications. This is more cerebral, less experiential. Students generalize and reflect. 10 Tools for Transfer
Campbell's law - is an adage developed by Donald T. Campbell, a psychologist and social scientist who often wrote about research methodology, which states: "The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor." Campbell, Donald T (1979). "Assessing the impact of planned social change". Evaluation and Program Planning. 2 (1): 67–90.
categorical syllogism - a deductive argument containing two categorical premises, a categorical conclusion, and three terms - major, minor, and the middle - with each term occurring in two propositions. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.
central tendency - where the values tend to be centered; measured by the mean, median, and mode. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 389.
classify - to group things into species and genuses according to their similarities and differences. A genus is the broader concept, such as Animal, where the species is the narrower one, such as Dog and Cat. A referent is the class of things the concept stands for, such as all the individual Dogs and Cats in the world. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 42.
cobra effect - is when an attempted solution to a problem makes the problem worse as a type of unintended consequence. The cobra effect originated during the time of the British rule of colonial India. The British government was concerned about the number of venomous cobras in Delhi. The government, therefore, offered a bounty for every dead cobra. Initially, this was a successful strategy as large numbers of snakes were killed for the reward. Eventually, however, enterprising people began to breed cobras for the income. When the government became aware of this, the reward program was scrapped causing the cobra breeders to set the worthless snakes free; the wild cobra population further increased.
cognitive closure -
cogent - the property of an inductive argument that is strong and whose premises are true. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, glossary.
complex adaptive syllabus -
complex adaptive system -
concept(s) - is a general way of doing something (e.g. cook an egg). Defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, in speech, or in thought. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics, psychology, and philosophy, and these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, and how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: Armstrong, S. L., Gleitman, L. R., & Gleitman, H. (1999). what some concepts might not be. In E. Margolis, & S. Lawrence, Concepts (pp. 225–261). Massachusetts: MIT press and Fodor, Jerry; Lepore, Ernest (1996). "The red herring and the pet fish: Why concepts still can't be prototypes". Cognition. 58 (2): 253–270
1) Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the mind (mental objects)
2) Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents (mental states)
3) Concepts as Fregean senses (see sense and reference), where concepts are abstract objects, as opposed to mental objects and mental states
context - the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.
contextualize - to consider something or to help other people consider something in its context (= the situation within which it exists or happens), which can help explain it: We need to contextualize the problem before we can understand its origin. Cambridge Dictionary.
context principle - holds that a philosopher should "never ... ask for the meaning of a word in isolation, but only in the context of a proposition" Frege, Gottlob (1884/1980). The Foundations of Arithmetic. Trans. J. L. Austin. Second Revised Edition. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.
counterfactual thinking - means thinking about the past by imagining that the past was different, counter to the facts of what actually occurred; typically used by posing "what-if" questions. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 405.
cynefin framework -
decision matrix -
definition - a statement that identifies the referents of a concept by specifying the genus they belong to and the essential characteristics (differentia) that distinguish those referents from other members of the genus. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 42.
desire path -
differentia - the element in a definition that specifies the attribute(s) distinguishing species from other species of the same genus. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 42.
essay map (EM) -
feedback loop -
feedback trail (FT) -
first principles - a group of self-evident assumptions that make up the foundation on which your conclusions rest - the ingredients in a recipe or the mathematical axioms that underpin a formula. Arguing from first principles is a mental model for thinking and means thinking from the bottom up, using basic building blocks of what you think is true to build sound conclusions. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 23-24.
"First principles is kind of a physics way of looking at the world... You kind of boil things down to the most fundamental truths and say, "What are we sure is true?"... and then reason up from there" - Elon Musk
function analysis - is the process of understanding your system by focusing on its functions.
function map - is the diagram you draw, which shows all the components and how they interact and all the functions, both good and bad.
general semantics -
genus - a class of things regarded as having various subcategories (its species). A genus is the broader concept, such as Animal. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 42.
Goodhart's law - is an adage named after economist Charles Goodhart, which has been phrased by Marilyn Strathern as "When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure." One way in which this can occur is individuals trying to anticipate the effect of a policy and then taking actions that alter its outcome. Strathern, Marilyn. "Improving Ratings: Audit in the British University System". European Review. 5 (3): 305–321.
Hick's law -
hugging - (designing for low road transfer) making the learning experience more like the ultimate applications. Students do and feel something more like the intended applications. 10 Tools for Transfer
idea - an Idea is a specific way of putting a concept into practice (e.g. fry an egg or scramble an egg)
knowledge trail (KT) -
knowledge transfer -
knowns & unknowns - Known-Known means What you know you know; Known-Unknown means What you know you don't know; Unknown-Known means What you don't know you know; Unknown-Unknown means What you don't know you don't know. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 398.
Lean Six Sigma (LSS) -
learning transfer -
logic model -
mean - average or expected value; a measure of central tendency.
median - middle value splitting the data into halves; a measure of central tendency.
meta - (from the Greek meta- μετά- meaning "after" or "beyond") is a prefix meaning more comprehensive or transcending. Merriam-Webster Dictionary
mode - most frequent result; a measure of central tendency.
p-value - the probability of obtaining a result equal to or more extreme than what was observed, assuming the null hypothesis was true; a common measure used to declare whether a result is statistically significant; for example, a p-value of 0.01 would mean that a difference equal to or larger than the one observed would happen only 1 percent of the time if something had no effect. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 336.
power - the sample size you need in order to detect a real result with a high enough probability; called the power of the experiment. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 331-332.
OODA loop -
referents - the class of things for which a concept stands, such as all the individual Dogs and Cats in the world. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 22.
simple rules -
simplification triangle -
species - a class of things regarded as a subcategory of a wider class (a genus). The narrower concept, such as Dog and Cat. Kelley, The Art of Reasoning, 10, 22.
swarm questions -
swarm learning -
swarm transfer triangle -
systems thinking - describes the act of stepping back and making sense of the whole system; when you attempt to think about the entire system at once; by thinking about the overall system, you are more likely to understand and account for subtle interactions between components that could otherwise lead to unintended consequences. Weinberg & McCann, Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models, 389.
systems thinking v2.0 (DSRP) -
swarming the canvas (SC) -
trail (or trace) -